13.भारतीय दर्शन ( Orthodox or Unorthodox Schools)

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1.Which one of the following is not an argument ?

  1. Devadutt does not eat in the day so he must be eating at night.
  2. If Devadutt is growing fat and if he does not eat during the day, he will be eating at night.
  3. Devadutt eats in the night so he does not eat during the day. 
  4. Since Devadutt does not eat in the day, he must be eating in the night.

Answer: (B)

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  1. “There is no jar now on the ground”

Identify the means of knowledge (Pramana) involved in the example from the options given below :

(1) Anupalabdhi (2) Arthapatti

(3) Pratyaksha (4) Anumana

Ans: 1

  1. Consider the argument given below :

“Sound is permanent because it is audible”

Identify the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian logic from the options given below :

(1) Fallacy of trivial reason

(2) Fallacy of irrelevant reason

(3) Fallacy of contradictory reason

(4) Fallacy of wrong assertion

Ans: 1

  1. Consider the example given below :

Devadatta is growing fat.

He does not eat food during the day.

Therefore, He must be eating food during the night, other things being equal.

Identify the logic involved in the example provided above by choosing the correct answer

from options given below :

(1) Arthapatti 

(2) Anupalabdi

(3) Anumana 

(4) Sabda

Ans:1

  1. Consider the argument provided below :

“Sound is permanent because it is a product like the jar”.

Identify the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian logic from the

options given below.

(1) Fallacy of contradictory reason 

(2) Fallacy of wrong assertion

(3) Fallacy of irrelevant reason 

(4) Fallacy of trivial reason

Ans:1

  1. “Sound is impermanent because it is audible”

Identify the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian Logic from the options given below :

(1) Fallacy of Trivial reason 

(2) Fallacy of irrelevant reason

(3) Fallacy of Wrong assertion 

(4) Fallacy of contradictory reason

Ans: 1

  1. Which one of the following hetvabhasa (fallacy) is involved in the argument, “

Sound is element because is caused”?

  1. Viruddha or contradictory middle
  2. Satpratipaksa or inferentially contradicted middle
  3. Sadhyasama or the unprovided middle
  4. Badhita or non-inferentially contradicted middle

Ans. 1

  1. “Fire is cold, because it is a substance” – is an instance of which one of the hetuābhāsas (fallacy of inference)
  2. A siddha (unproved middle term) 
  3. Badhita (non-inferential contradicted middle)
  4. Virudha (contradictory middle)
  5. Saryabi Cara (irregular middle)

Ans: 2

Q.10. To infer in the past by perceiving muddy water in the pond; is

  1. Purvouat anumana
  2. Sesvatanuaman
  3. Both purvovat anumana and sesvastanuman
  4. Comparison

Ans:2

Q.11 “ Wherever there is smoke, there is fire

There is smoke in Mr verma’s chamber

There must be fire in Mr Verma’s chamber”.

In accordance with indian logic, this is an example of

  1. Pratyaksha pramana ( Perception)
  2. Upmana  ( comprason)
  3. Hetvabhasa ( Fallacy)
  4. Vyapti ( invariable relations)

Ans:4

Q.12.  What type of fallacy is implied in the following

“Fire is cold, because it is a substance”

  1. Badhita
  2. Virudha
  3. Asadharana
  4. Anupsamhan

Ans:1

Q.13. In the statement ‘the hill has smoke because it has fire, which type of fallacy may be identified?

  1. Asidha
  2. Sadharana
  3. Asadharana
  4. Vyapyatvasidha

Ans:4

Q.14 ‘Fire is not warm because it is produced such as water”, is an example of which type of fallacy?

(1) Satpratiparksha

(2) Badhit-vishaya

(3) Virudha

(4) Swaroopsidha

Ans:2

(15). A fallacy in which an opponent’s position is depicted as being more extreme or unreasonable than is justified by what was actually asserted is called

  1. Argumentum ad Baculum 
  2. Argumentum ad Hominem
  3. The Red Herring 
  4. Straw Man

Ans: 4

(16). “Everyone is going to the party. You should go too.” This inference commits which kind of fallacy?

  1. Ad Populum
  2. Ad Verecundiam
  3. Equivocation
  4. Ad Ignorantiam

Ans: 1

(17). The inference “A mouse is an animal. Therefore, a large mouse is a large animal commits which one of the following fallacies?

  1. Straw man 
  2. Equivocation
  3. Slippery slope
  4. Fallacy of composition

Ans:3

18.”In this hospital, some nurses don’t wear white dress, some doctors have private practice and medicines prescribed are of high cost. Therefore, treatment in this hospital is of poor quality”. What fallacy does this argument make?

(1) Fallacy of composition 

(2) Slippery slope

(3) Fallacy of accident 

(4) Fallacy of division

Ans. 2

Q.20 ‘Planets are big, Therefore, the atoms from which they are made are big’. This inference commits which kind of fallacy ? 

  1. Fallacy of division 
  2. Fallacy of ambiguity 
  3. Fallacy of equivocation 
  4. Ad populum 

Ans:1

Q.22 “GOD is great because He does great things”. This inference commits which kind of fallacy?

  1. Ad populum
  2. Fallacy of composition 
  3. Fallacy of division 
  4. Petitio principal 

Ans:4

Q.23 “Have you stopped telling lies.”?

This type of question commits which kind of fallacy? 

  1. Fallacy of complex question 
  2. Fallacy of ambiguity 
  3. Fallacy of equivocation 
  4. Fallacy of accident 

Ans:1

Q.24 What fallacy is committed in the following argument? 

“Mr. X is wrong in what he said because he is undisciplined by nature”

  1. Ad hominem 
  2. Ad populum 
  3. Ad hoc 
  4. As misericordiam 

Ans:1

Q.25 “Mr. X is penniless, therefore he should be preferred for admission to college “ this reasoning represents which kind of fallacy?

  1. Ad hominem 
  2. Ad misericordiam 
  3. As baculum 
  4. Ignoratio elenchi 

Ans:2

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