# 3.Inductive Deductive Reasoning in Hindi (2)

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1. Which of the following statements are false ? Choose from the code given below:
1. Inductive arguments always proceed from the particular to the general.
2. A cogent argument must be inductively strong.
3. A valid argument may have a false premise and a false conclusion.
4. An argument may legitimately be spoken of as ‘true’ of ‘false’.

Code:

1. 2, 3 and 4
2. 1 and 3
3. 2 and 4
4. 1 and 2
1. Inductive reasoning presupposes

(A) Unity in human nature.

(B) Integrity in human nature.

(C) Uniformity in human nature.

(D) Harmony in human nature.

1. When the conclusion of an argument  follows  from its premise/ premises conclusively, the argument is called

(A) Circular argument

(B) Inductive argument

(C) Deductive argument

(D) Analogical argument

1. Given below are some characteristics of logical argument. Select the code which expresses a characteristic which is not inductive in character.

(A) The conclusion is claimed to follow from its premises.

(B) The conclusion is based on causal relation.

(C) The conclusion conclusively follows from its premises.

(D) The conclusion is based on observation and experiment

1. Which one among the following is a presupposition in inductive reasoning ?

(1) Law of identity

(2) Unchangeability in nature

(3) Harmony in nature

(4) Uniformity of nature

1. Choose the right code :

A deductive argument claims that :

1. The conclusion does not claim something more than that which is contained in the premises.
2. The conclusion is supported by the premise/premises conclusively.
3. If the conclusion is false, then premise/premises may be either true or false.
4. If the premise/combination of premises is true, then the conclusion must be true.

Codes :

1. I and II
2. I and III
3. II and III
4. All the above
1. A deductive argument can not be valid :

(A) If its premise / premises is / are true and its conclusion is true.

(B) If its premise / premises is / are true and its conclusion is false.

(C) If its premise / premises is / are false and its conclusion is false.

(D) If its premise / premises is / are false and its conclusion is true.

1. “A man ought no more to value himself for being wiser than a woman if he owes his advantage to a better education, than he ought to boast of his courage for beating a man when his hands were tied.” The above passage is an instance of

(A) Deductive argument

(B) Hypothetical argument

(C) Analogical argument

(D) Factual argument

1. Consider the argument given below ;

‘Pre – employment testing of teachers is quite fair because doctors; architects and engineers who

re now employed had to face such a testing.’

What type of argument is it ?

(1) Deductive

(2) Analogical

(3) Psychological

(4) Biological

1. Select the code which is not correct in the context of deductive argument with two premises :

(1) An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a false conclusion may be valid.

(2) An argument with two true premises and a false conclusion may be valid.

(3) An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a true conclusion may be valid.

(4) An argument with two false premises and a false conclusion may be valid.

1. Which one among the following is not a characteristic of a deductive type of argument ?

(1) The conclusion follows from the premise/ premises necessarily.

(2) The argument admits a degree of complexity.

(3) The argument provides us knowledge about matters of fact.

(4) The argument must be either valid or invalid.

1. Select the code which states the condition of an invalid deductive argument :

(1) All the premises are true but the conclusion is false.

(2) Some of the premises are true but the conclusion is false.

(3) All the premises are false and the conclusion is also false.

(4) All the premises are true and the conclusion is also true.

1. Given below are some characteristics of reasoning. Select the code that states a characteristic which is not of deductive reasoning :

(1) The conclusion must be based on observation and experiment.

(2) The conclusion should be supported by the premise/premises.

(3) The conclusion must follow from the premise/premises necessarily.

(4) The argument may be valid or invalid.

1. A deductive argument is invalid if :

(1) Its premises and conclusion are all true.

(2) Its premises and conclusion are all false.

(3) Its premises are all false but its conclusion is true.

(4) Its premises are all true but its conclusion is false.

Q-16 In which of the following instances, deductive argument is invalid?

Options:-

1. When its premises are true but conclusion is false.
2. When its premises and conclusion are all true.
3. When its premises are false and conclusion is true.
4. When its premises and conclusion are all false.
Ans:1

Q-27 In a valid deductive argument, if the premises are true, then:

Options:-

1. Conclusion may sometimes be true
2. Conclusion can be probably true
3. Conclusion must be true.
4. Conclusion must be false.

Ans:3

Q-18 When the conclusion of an argument follows from its premises necessarily, the argument is called:

Options:-

1. Circular argument
2. Deductive argument
3. Analogical argument
4. Inductive argument
Ans:2
1. The argument which claims that its conclusion is conclusively supported by its premises is called

(1) Analogical Argument

(2) Inductive Argument

(3) Demonstrative Argument

(4) Deductive Argument

Ans: 4
1. Identify the argument under which instantial propositions are inferrable from Universal Proposition.

(1) Deductive argument

(2) Inductive argument

(3) Reductive argument

(4) Analogical argument

Ans: 1

(21). Product of two consecutive integers is divisible by 2. Therefore 4 x5=(20) is divisible by 2. This is an example of which type of Reasoning?

1. Abductive
2. Inductive
3. Informal
4. Deductive
Ans: 4

(22). Which one of the following statements is correct with reference deductive argument?

1. The relation between premises and conclusion is one a matter of fect
2. The relation between premises and conclusion is one of logical necessity
3. The relation between premises and conclusion is that of empirical necessity
4. the relation between premises and conclusion is a matter of ascertainment of probability
Ans:  2
1. “If it rains, then the drought will end. The drought has ended. Therefore, it rained”. Which kind of fallacy does this commit?

(1) Deductive fallacy

(2) Inductive fallacy

(3) Abductive fallacy

(4) Informal fallacy

Ans. 1

Q.24 Identify the feature of aristotelian syllogism from the following:

(A) It is deductive-inductive and formal material

(B) It is only deductive and formal

(C) The major and minor terms stand apart in the premises

(D) It is verbalistic

(E) Verbal from is not the essence of inference

Choose the correct answer from the options given below

(1)  (A) (B) and  (C) only

(2)  (A) (C) and (E) only

(3)  (B) (C) and  (D) only

(4)  (A) (D) and (E) only

Ans:3

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